The huge genus Eucalyptus (Eucalyptus spp.) belongs to the Myrtaceae family and contains almost 900 species and subspecies. The second-largest genus after acacia. It is a tall, evergreen endemic to Australia and Tasmania. Aboriginal people used the eucalyptus plant for a variety of purposes in the past, including food and medicinal. The benefits of eucalyptus oil in the pulp industry. Also, the extraction of eucalyptus oil (EO) is beneficial in perfumes, cosmetics, food, drinks, aromatherapy, and phytotherapy.
Benefits of eucalyptus include; forestry (wood, fuel, paper pulp), and environmental planting (controlling water and wind erosion). Also, as a source of essential oil (therapeutic, fragrance oils), and for arts and crafts. It has been effectively introduced into 90 nations since the 1850s, where it is currently one of the most significant and commonly planted genera. It is now primarily grown in subtropical and Mediterranean climates, as well as in Nigeria. E. globulus, also known as blue-gum eucalyptus in English and Tamil and eucalyptus in Bengali and Hindi.
There are numerous eucalyptus species. Some are the size of a little attractive shrub, while others develop into enormous trees. The Australian fever tree or blue gum variety is the one that is most frequently used as medication. It has a maximum height of 230 feet. The leaf is 4 to 12-inch long, glossy, dark green leaves. When its blue-grey bark gets peeled back, the inner bark is cream in color.
Chemical composition that shows the benefits of Eucalyptus
- The leaf, stem, and root of Eucalyptus are rich sources of phytochemical substances such as flavonoids, alkaloids, tannins, and propanoids. Several studies generally conduct to isolate the phytoconstituents from the plant’s organs.
- Numerous volatile substances, including 1,8-cineole (eucalyptol) aromadendrene, globulol, α-gurjunene, ß-pinene, α -, ß- and γ -terpinen-4-ol, pipertone, and allo-aromadendrene, are present in both leaves and shoots.
- Eucalyptol is, in particular, the primary and most significant substance found in eucalyptus.
- Fruits were additionally utilizes to extract borneol, citral, eudesmol, caproic acid, fenchone, myrecene, myrtenol, p-menthane, α-terpineol, verbinone, asparagine, glycine, glutamic acid, cysteine, ornithine, and threonine.
- Flowers and honey were commonly uses to extract sucrose and form acid.
- Eucalyptol makes up 79.85% of the chemical content of Eucalyptus even though more than 18 different chemicals have been scientifically found in the plant.
- The Eucalyptus also revealed a significant concentration of oxygenated monoterpenes, which differ across each Eucalyptus species and may have a variety of medicinal characteristics. Geographical location, seasons, and other variables have an impact on the composition pattern of essential oils, which in turn has an impact on biological processes.
Health Benefits of Eucalyptus Oil
Researchers and environmentalists from all over the world are enthusiastic about eucalyptus plants because they offer a rapidly expanding supply of wood and oil that can be successfully utilizes for a variety of reasons. The oil is readily made from leaves, fruits, buds, and bark, and the benefits of eucalyptus oil include; antibacterial, antiseptic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer properties. As a result, it is useful to treat respiratory conditions like the common cold, influenza, and sinus congestion.
The purpose of this research is to give scientific data on eucalyptus plants to highlight their advantageous and healthful qualities as well as possible applications. 1,8-cineole is the primary component of the volatile oil made from fresh eucalyptus leaves. It’s therapeutic qualities and strong odor are due to the presence of this substance. The usage of eucalyptus oil in industry, medicine, and fragrances is widespread.
Part 1- Health benefits of Eucalyptus oil
- Antimicrobial property: Through a combination of direct vapor absorption by microorganisms and indirect impact through the medium that absorbed the vapor, volatile components in leaf essential oils can inhibit the growth of microbes. In E. globulus, a phytochemical investigation discovered a novel phloroglucinol derivative (Eucalyptone G) along with nine additional substances. In addition to being very active against Gram-negative Escherichia coli, it is also active against Gram-positive Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus.
- Antihyperglycemic (anti-diabetic) property: benefits of eucalyptus oil possess anti-diabetic and antioxidant characteristics. It lowers oxidative stress by lowering plasma glucose levels in diabetic mice, which prevents the unwanted formation of free radicals through protein glycation.
- Anthelmintic property: Due to the presence of borneol, linalool, cineole, geranyl acetate, anethol, and saffrol as phytoconstituents, eucalyptus globulus oil has the potential to be an anthelmintic.
- Antihistaminic property: For the treatment of allergies, Indonesians utilize the leaf oil of E. globulus. Essential oil prevents RBL-2H3 cells from releasing histamine in an IgE-dependent manner.
- Anti-inflammatory property: The 1,8-cineole in eucalyptus essential oil is a potent cytokine suppressor that is suitable for the long-term management of inflammation in steroid-sensitive conditions. 18 different species of Eucalyptus leaf essential oils are being investigated for their ability to reduce inflammation by gauging their ability to inhibit granulation. Euglobals are responsible for the anti-inflammatory effect.
- Antioxidant property: Benefits of eucalyptus oil also include antioxidant properties. Additionally, the methanol extracts of E. globulus demonstrated their ability to stop the oxidation process. Eucalyptus leaves have the potential as a natural antioxidant in the food supplement, feed, and pharmaceutical industries.
Part 2- Health benefits of Eucalyptus oil
- Nerve blocker (tranquilizer): The volatile and analgesic properties of eucalyptus oil make it simple for muscles and nerves to absorb. Aromatherapy practitioners frequently utilize the oil of E. globulus, which contains the volatile monoterpenoid alcohol (Terpineol).
- Analgesic property: Eucalyptus oil works as a natural painkiller and also prevents infection. It speeds up recovery due to cineole content’s ease of tissue penetration. Eucalyptus oil also treats pains, fibrosis, rheumatism, lumbago, and injured ligaments, and tendons.
- Respiratory disorders: According to research 1,8-Cineole is an important component of the essential oils of E. globulus. It also treats respiratory muscles, stimulates breathing, reduces coughing, and aids remove mucus. Eucalyptus oil treats respiratory issues such as sinusitis, bronchitis, a cold, cough, and many more.
- Helps in wound recovery: The antiseptic quality of eucalyptus oil is useful for treating wounds, burns, and cuts. Additionally, it is useful to treat insect stings and bites.
- Antimalarial activity: The benefits of eucalyptus oil shows for antimalarial activity against Plasmodium falciparum.