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Benefits of Fennel

It is a native of Europe and the Mediterranean region. It grows in temperate zones all over the world. An old seasonal herb is a fennel. The benefits of Fennel in diets enhance appetite, digestion, nutritional absorption, and immunity.  The fennel plant  now grows wild in Asia, North America,

About Fennel

Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.), a well-known aromatic plant, is related to cumin, dill, and caraway. It bears aromatic fruits that are often referred to as seeds. It belongs to the Apiaceae family. The benefits of Fennel seed include analgesic, antipyretic, and antioxidant properties. It is frequently used as a natural remedy for digestive disorders like dyspepsia, bloating, and flatulence. In the liqueur and perfume industries, as well as in food flavoring, it is commonly used. Essential oils from fennel contain antioxidant, antibacterial, and hepatoprotective properties. Both on farms and in the wild, it is grown.

Each day, fennel is eaten raw in salads and snacks, cooked in stews, boiled, grilled, or baked foods, or even used to make herbal teas or alcoholic beverages. Due to its significant nutritional makeup and the presence of important fatty acids, a diet containing the recommended amount of fennel may have positive effects on health. Fennel production on a big scale is also promoted in recent years by rising interest in enhancing the plant’s agricultural yield as a result of its therapeutic qualities and essential oil content.

History that shows the Benefits of Fennel

Ancient Egyptians, Romans, Indians, and Chinese all knew about the benefits of fennel. The edible fleshy branches are still a widely-used vegetable in southern Italy, where the Romans farmed it for its fragrant seeds. The belief is that Emperor Charlemagne promoted its growth in Central Europe. It is a crucial component of contemporary French and Italian cuisine. The plant’s entire body is fragrant and has numerous uses. India, Egypt, China, Romania, Russia, Germany, France, Italy, Japan, Argentina, the United States, Indonesia, and Pakistan are the top fennel growers. Morocco, Spain, and Southern Europe. Canada, Malaysia, the United Arab Emirates, the United Kingdom, Japan, Malaysia, Singapore, Saudi Arabia, the United States, Bangladesh, South Africa, Bahrain, and Holland are the top importing countries.


  • Foeniculum vulgare is a 6.6 ft. (2 m) tall upright, branching perennial herb with soft, feathery, almost hair-like foliage.
  • This plant resembles dill in appearance. It grows in vegetable and herb gardens for its anise-flavored foliage and seeds, which are frequently used in cooking.
  • It is erect and cylindrical, bright green and smooth, with several branching leaves cut into the finest of segments.
  • The leaves can grow up to 40 cm long, with the last segments filiform (threadlike) and around 0.5 mm wide. In July and August, beautiful golden flowers appear in large, flat terminal umbels with thirteen to twenty rays.

Chemical constituents

Fennels are dry and sweet, and the fruit is wonderful when completely ripe. The fruit is frequently stored for later use, and fennel, a dried fruit, is a widely traded product. One of the top plant suppliers of calcium, potassium, sodium, and phosphorus is fennel. Fennels are the highest in dietary fiber and vitamins, proportional to human needs, according to USFDA data for the Mission variety. Several other nutrients are present in lower concentrations. About twenty-one fatty acids were already available. It also contains flavonoids and phenolic compounds.

Health Benefits of Fennel

There are numerous health benefits of fennel which includes-

  • Antibacterial and antiviral activity: The ethnic medicine Fennel treats a wide range of infectious diseases with bacterial, fungal, viral, and mycobacterial origins. Several studies show its antibacterial, antimycobacterial, and antiviral properties. Essential oil is responsible for these activities.
  • Digestion Aid: Fennel seeds also uses as a spice to season cuisine. Fennel seeds act as medicine to alleviate bloating and gas, with a tea produced from a small tablespoon of the seeds and hot water, steeped for 20 minutes, and consumed a half hour after a meal.
  • Anti-inflammatory activity: Fennel fruit methanol extract inhibited acute and subacute inflammatory disorders in rats and mice when administered orally.
  • Galactogenic Potential: For millennia, Fennel mostly promotes milk secretion. As a result, Fennel is a galactagogue material. The structural resemblance of anethole, its main ingredient, to dopamine appears to be the source of galactogenic action.
  • Expectorant action: This activity suggests that fennel might be beneficial to treat bronchial and bronchopulmonary disorders, as well as in highly polluted surroundings. The volatile oil of Fennel promotes smooth muscle contraction in the trachea, which may aid in the expectoration of mucus, germs, and other corpuscles not found in the respiratory tracts.
  • Antidiuretic action: A diuretic is any chemical that stimulates the production of urine. In brief, it is a diuretic. Diuretics function by boosting the excretion of urine and urinary sodium (UNa) from the body, which reduces the volume of blood flowing through the cardiovascular system.
  • Gastrointestinal effect: In rats, an aqueous extract of Fennel demonstrated strong antiulcerogenic activity against ethanol-induced stomach ulcers. The aqueous extract pretreatment greatly reduces ethanol-induced stomach injury.

Other Benefits of Fennel

  • Anticancer activity: Foeniculum vulgare has the potential to be a natural source of anticancer drugs as well as a cytoprotective agent for normal cells. Anethole is the main active component in fennel seeds that possesses an anti-cancer effect.
  • Antispasmodic effect: Fennel shows  the antispasmodic action.
  • Antioxidant activity: Natural antioxidants are capable of helping protect individuals from the consequences of oxidative stress. Fennel is high in natural antioxidants and contributes to an antioxidant diet regularly.
  • Cardiovascular activity: An aqueous extract of Fennel leaves may have cardiovascular benefits. An intravenous infusion of a lyophilized boiled water extract of leaves results in a considerable dose-related drop in arterial blood pressure without changing heart rate or respiration rate.
  • Hypolipidemic Activity: The aqueous extract of Fennel demonstrated significant hypolipidemic and antiatherogenic action. The aqueous extract significantly lowers plasma lipid levels, lowering cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-cholesterol, and apolipoprotein-B while increasing HDL-cholesterol and apolipoprotein A1.
  • Estrogenic effect: Fennel oil appears to possess estrogenic activity, promote menstruation, reduce female climacteric symptoms, and boost libido.
  • Neurodegenerative disease: Alzheimer’s disease is a neurodegenerative ailment. Dementia is a common sign of Alzheimer’s disease and is one of the age-related mental issues. There is some evidence in favor of using Fennel to treat cognitive diseases such as dementia and Alzheimer’s disease.
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Diksha Rajwar is a licensed pharmacist and loves to write. She has experience in the cosmetic industry as a Research and Development Associate. Diksha is passionate about driving positive change through research and outreach. She earned her master’s degree in pharmacy (Pharmaceutics) from the Babasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar University of Lucknow. She graduated with a Bachelor's degree in pharmacy from Sardar Bhagwan Singh Post Graduate Institute of Biomedical Science, Dehradun, Uttarakhand. She is especially passionate about educating people on the traditional system of medicine i.e, Ayurveda, and on the use of natural herbal plants in daily life to keep away from diseases.


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